White Turmeric Overview:
Curcuma zedoaria, known as కచొరము kacōramu in Telugu, is the name for a perennial herb and member of the genus Curcuma Linn., family Zingiberaceae. It is also known as White Turmeric. The plant is native to India and Indonesia. It was introduced to Europe by Arabs around the sixth century, but its use as a spice in the West today is extremely rare, having been replaced by common ginger.
A rhizomatous herb; leaf-shoots may reaching a height of up to 1 m and carry about 5 leaves. The rhizomes provide an easily digested starch. It is used as a component in infant and invalid diets. An essential oil can also be extracted and used in perfumery and medicinal preparations. Leaves are used for flavouring fish and other culinary purposes. Rhizomes can be harvested about 300 days after planting. Zedoary is considered native weed of northeastern India. It can be found at elevations up to 900 m. It requires a hot, humid climate. Zedoary is a rhizome with a thin brown skin and a pale yellow, hard interior. Its smell is similar to turmeric and mango. Because of the mango-like fragrance, zedoary is called amb halad in many Indian languages (amb means mango). Uses: Improves blood circulation, ant contusion, and improves menstrual flow. It helps in abdominal cramps, amenorrhea-abdominal pain and rheumatic pain. It also helps in pain and swelling associated with sprains.
Of 110 species of the genus Curcuma L., only about 20 species have been studied phytochemically. Curcuma longa is the most chemically investigated species of Curcuma. To date, at least 235 compounds, primarily phenolic compounds and terpenoids have been identified, including diarylheptanoids (including commonly known as curcuminoids), diarylpentanoids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenoids, alkaloid, and sterols, etc. The main active components are Cucuminoids (3-15%) and essential oils (1.5-5%). Turmeric extracts or the active curcuminoids have also shown neuroprotective, nootropic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic), anti-amyloidogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, parasiticidal, antioxidant, anti-tumor, larvicidal, chemo-resistance and radio-resistance activities.
Medicinal Uses of Zedoary:
In Pakistan and India, it is believed that this rhizome is an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and an anti-periodic (preventing the recurrence of a fever, for example). Modern herbal practitioners believe that it helps cell regeneration and use it for relieving digestive disorders, including ulcers and indigestion. It is also used as a blood purifier and as the starch is easily digested, it is given to young children as a healthy alternative to other farinaceous products. It is believed that a diet which includes finely ground zedoary will prevent infant colic. It is often used as a remedy for respiratory ailments. In Ayurvedic medicine it is thought to be a cure for erectile dysfunction and a body stimulant, as it tones the muscles in the uterus, it is prescribed as an aphrodisiac to both men and women. The rhizome is used for curing stomach diseases, toothache, blood stagnation, leucoderma, tuberculosis, enlargement of spleen, and for promoting menstruation in traditional medicine in Asia . Anti-inflammatory activity [24, 25], antifungal activity , antiulcer activity [27, 28], antimicrobial effect [13, 28, 29], hepatoprotective activity [30, 31], antiamoebic effect , of this plant rhizome have been reported. The Curcuma zedoaria rhizome is termed Ezhu in Chinese and is extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various ovarian and cervical cancers. Curdione isolated from this plant has been found to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, both of which are implicated in inflammation and carcinogenic process . Some novel compounds like curuminoids have been isolated from Curcuma zedoaria which has inhibitory activity against Ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3) . Elemene isolated from Curcuma zedoaria rhizome has been found to have substantial antitumour activity against promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells . Curcumin and curcumenol are reported to inhibit the growth of S-180 sarcoma cells and mouse cervical U-14 cells . The rhizomes are reported to contain several sesquiterpenoid compounds [35, 36]. CZ-1-III, the polysaccharide fractions from Curcuma zedoaria, was found to decrease the tumor size sarcoma 180 of mouse and prevents chromosomal mutation . Macrophage-stimulating activity of Curcuma zedoaria and its possibility of being used as a biological response modifier have been reported .
Main Chemical Constituent Composition in Curcuma zedoaria Rhizomes
Like the closely related Yellow Turmeric, Zedoary contains several Cucuminoids and related components.
Curcuminoid Content of Zedaory (Curcuma zedoaria):
Sesquiterpene Content of Zedaory (Curcuma zedoaria):
Furanodiene, furanodienone, zederone, curzerenone, curzeone, germacrone, curcumenol,
zedoaronediol, germacrone-4,5-epoxide, germacrone, furanodienone, curzerenone, zederone, dehydrocurdione, curcumenol, isocurcumenol, curcumenone, curmanolide A, curmanolide B, zedoarofuran, 4-epicurcumenol, neocurcumenol, gajutsulactone A, gajutsulactone B, zedoarolides A, zedoarolides B, zedoalactone A, zedoalactone A, Zedoarol, 13-hydroxygermacrone, curzeone, curcumenone, curcumanolide-A, curcumanolide-B, a-turmerone, b-turmerone
Other Components in Zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria):
Curzerenone (22-31%), germacrone (9-11%), 1,8-cineole (15%), 8,9-Dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene, 6-ethenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-5-isopropenyl-trans-benzofuran, eucalyptol, γ-elemene, curdione
Chemical Constituent in Curcuma zedoaria Leaves:
The essential oil, which was produced by hydrodistillation of Curcuma zedoaria (Zingiberaceae) leaves, was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-three compounds were identified, accounting for 75% of the oil. The oil of C. zedoaria was made up mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoids, monoterpene hydrocarbons (2.3%), oxygenated monoterpenes (26%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38%), and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (13.5%). alpha-Terpinyl acetate (8.4%), isoborneol (7%), dehydrocurdione (9%) and selina-4(15),7(11)-dien-8-one (9.4%) were the major constituents of the leaf oil.1
Indian Arrowroot, Ukon, Gajutsu, Zingiberaceae, Curuminoids, Zedoary Root, White Turmeric, amb halad, Rhizoma Zedoariae, Zédoaire, Rhizome de Zédoaire, Zitwer, ขมิ้นหัวขึ้น, ขมิ้นขึ้น, ขมิ้นอ้อย, ขมิ้นขาว, Khamin hua khuen, Khamin khun, Khamin oi, Khamin khao, jadwaar or zedwar [جدوار], isiot [исиот], కచొరము kacōramu, karppurakkiccilikkilangku, கர்ப்பூரக்குச்சிக்கிழங்கு, Palua, meitei yaingang, katuri, Kunir Putih, Temu, nghệ đen, Kachoor, цитварный корень, цедоария, 片姜黄, 봉술, ขมิ้นอ้อย , जेडोएरी, kurkuma zedoárová.
Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe, Curcuma aeruginosa, Amomum latifolium Salisb., Amomum zedoaria Christm., Amomum latifolium Lam., Amomum zerumbet, Costus luteus, Costus nigricans, Curcuma malabarica Velay. Amalraj & Mural., Curcuma officinalis, Curcuma pallida, Curcuma speciosa, Curcuma zerumbet, Roscoea lutea (Blanco) Hassk. , Roscoea nigrociliata Hassk., Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, Erndlia zerumbet Giseke
White Turmeric Research Data Links:
Bing Images – Crescent Bloom – Dave’s Garden – Encyclopedia of Life – Floridata – Google Scholar – Hortipedia – I Love India – Plant Delights – PubMed – SF Gate – Spice Pages – USDA – WebMD – Wikipedia