Food; spice. Cosmetics. Fine lumber. Medicines. Tamarind pulp has laxative properties; its infusion in water is a very refreshing drink; it is useful in fevers. As a laxative it is taken singly or in mixture with other purgative drugs. When mixed with other purgative drugs it reduces their laxative property.
Trees, to 20 m high, bark brown to brownish-black, rough with vertical fissures; branchlets warty, tomentose. Leaves paripinnate, alternate; stipules lateral, minute, cauducous; rachis 8-13 cm long, slender, glabrous, pulvinate; leaflets 20-34, opposite, sessile, estipellate; lamina 1.5-4 x 0.4-1.3 cm, oblong, base unequal, apex obtuse, margin entire, glabrous, chartaceous; lateral nerves 10-15 pairs, pinnate, slender, obscure, looped at the margin forming intramarginal nerve; intercostae reticulate, obscure. Flowers bisexual, 1 cm across, yellow with reddish-pink dots, in lax terminal racemes; bracts and bracteoles ovate-oblong, coloured, cauducous; pedicels upto 5 mm; calyx tube narrowly turbinate, lined by disc; lobes 4, subequal, oblong, imbricate; petals 3, outer one, 1 x 0.3 cm, rolled up, pink dotted, lateral 2, 1-1.5 x 0.7-1 cm, clawed, subequal, oblong-lanceolate, lower pair scaly; stamens 9 monadelphous, only 3 fertile, others reduced to bristle, base pubescent; anthers versatile; ovary half inferior, stipitate, adnate to the disc, ovules many; style attenuate, tomentose; stigma globose. Fruit a pod 10-15 x 1-2 cm, oblong, fruit wall crustaceous, mesocarp pulpy, endocarp septate, leathery, indehiscent; seeds 3-8 or more, obovoid-orbicular, compressed, brown.
Seeds; Veneer grafting, shield (T or inverted T) budding, and air layering may be used to propagate desirable selections. Such trees will usually fruit within three to four years if provided optimum growing conditions.
3-4 years in tropical Africa, Asia 5-6 years, 8 years in Mexico.
Plant contains volatile flavone compounds, furfural, furfunone, phenylacetaldehyde, methylfurfural. Leaves, bark and flowers contain Hordenine. Bark contains tannin. Kernels contain polysaccharide. Pulp contains tartaric acid. The fruit contains traces of oxalic acid, 10% free tartaric acid, 8% acid potassium tartarae, 25 to 45% invert sugar and some tannin. Its acidity varies from 11 to 16 percent.
Tamarind, تمر هندی, tamar hindi, Indian Date, tamarandi, thinthrinee, teteli, tetul (তেঁতুল), tentuli, imli (इमली), aamli (आम्ली), amli, चिंचं (the chinch), hunase (ಹುಣಸೆ), chintachettu, chintapandu, puli (புளி), vaalanpuli (വാളന്പുളി), siyambala (සියඹලා), demir hindi, asam, asem, jawa, Javanese sour fruit, sambaya, sampaloc, sambalog, sambag, me, loan-tz, magee-bin, magee-thee, má kăam (มะขาม), ໝາກຂາມ (maak-kham), voamadilo, kily, tamarene, Māori Kūki Āirani, Rarotonganis, tamarene, dawadawa, bwemba, viwawasha, tsamiya, kwaju, Hamaar, tamarindo, tamón, tambran, ambli, amli, imli, amalika, tintiri, tintul, tetul, asam jawa, assam, tambaring, trai me, makham, siyambala, maha siyambala, रेष्ठम्लम् Shreshtamlam, Sulla, ਇਮਲੀ Imli, अम्लिका Or अम्लीका Amalika, चण्डः Chandah, Irula : Puliyamaram, చింత Chinta, Puliya, तिन्तिली Tintili, चुक्रम्ला Chukramla, எதளா Etala, चिंच्याम Chinchyaam, అమ్లిక Amlika, আম্লীকা Amlika, ఆమ్లము Amlamu, Indian Date, Punjabi, তিন্তিড়ীক Tintidika, വാളന്പുളി Valamapuli, अम्लम् Amlam, புளி Puli, आम्लिका Amlika, ಹುಣಸೇ Hunase, Malayalam, वृक्षम्लम् Vrukshamlam, तिन्तिड़ी Tintiri, चुक्रा Chukra, Bengali, अमिलि Amili, Sanskrit, கிஞ்சம் Kincam, சஞ்சீவகரணி Canciva-karani, अमली Amli, महाम्लम् Mahamlam, इमली Imli, তেঁতেলী Tenteli, இந்தம் Intam, తింత్రిణి Tintrini, Telugu, Konkani, Tamil, Manipuri, Gujarati, তেঁতুল Tentula, Marathi, अम्लफलः Amlaphalah, चिन्तिडी Chintidi, Assamese, Oriya, చించ Chincha, तिन्तिलीका Tintilika, ਅੰਬਲੀ Ambli, चिंच Chinch, चरित्रा Charitra, Kannada, तिन्तिडिका Tintidika, Hindi, अम्लवृक्षः Amlavrukshah, ખાટી આમલી Khati Aamli, ஆம்பிலம் Ambilam, फलम्लम् Phalamlam, Madeira Mahogany, Nepalese, പുളി Puli, Camalindo, गुरुपत्रा Gurupatra, Pali, Tintuli, तित्रि Titri, Hin : Imli, املی Imlii, इम्लि Imli, चिञ्चा Chincha, ஓதிமம் Otimam, Tamarind, Urdu, Irula : Sullamaram, आम्लः Amalah, எகின் Ekin, சண்டன் Cantan, মংগে Mange, तिन्तिडः Tintidah
Tamarind Culinary Links:
All Recipes (Sweet Tamarind Chutney)
Babble (How to make Agua de Tamarindo (Tamarind Water))
Bon Appétit (Tamarind and Vodka Cocktail Recipe)
Chow (Stir-Fried Tamarind Eggplant Recipe)
Cookthink (What is tamarind?)
Fine Cooking (What is it?)
Food Network (Tamarind Cooler)
Girl Cooks World (Tart and Garlicky Tamarind Sauce)
Mass Spectrum Botanicals (Deep Spectrum Jamaican Jerk Chicken (60+ Ingredients))
Mass Spectrum Botanicals (Full Spectrum Jamaican Jerk Sauce Recipe Builder)
NYTimes (Tamarind Spiced Nuts With Mint)
SheSimmers (How to Prepare Tamarind Pulp (น้ำมะขามเปียก) for Thai Cooking)
Show Me The Curry (Homemade Tamarind Concentrate (Paste))
Thai Food (Tamarind Paste: How to Buy, Make & Use Tamarind (+ Substitutions!))
The Kitchn (How to Use Tamarind Pulp)
WikiHow (How to Make Tamarind Liquid)
Youtube (How to make Tamarind Paste)
Tamarind Data Links:
Bonsia Tool Chest – California Rare Fruit Growers – Cookpedia – Discover Life – Encyclopedia of Life – eFloras – Extension 2 – Feedpedia – Globeinmed – Great House Plants – Healthline – Home Remedies For You – India Biodiversity Portal – JSTOR – Jungle Garden – Kew – Make Bonsai – Missouri Botanical Garden – Plant Names – PubMed – USDA – WebMD – Wellness – Wikipedia – Wood Database – World Agroforestry Centre – Youtube
In Vivo Biochemical and Gene Expression Analyses of the Antioxidant Activities and Hypocholesterolaemic Properties of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract.
Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Nutrient composition of selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa.
In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).
PST-Gold nanoparticle as an effective anticancer agent with immunomodulatory properties.
Influence of tamarind seed gum derivatives on the in vitro performance of gastro-retentive tablets based on hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.
Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell’s viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.
Anti-inflammatory action of Tamarind seeds reduces hyperglycemic excursion by repressing pancreatic β-cell damage and normalizing SREBP-1c concentration.
Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.
Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves.
Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide as a mucoadhesive polymer.
Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets’ intracellular calcium levels and stimulates β-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.
Design and optimization of a chronotherapeutic dosage form for treatment of nocturnal acid breakthrough.
Thermally reversible xyloglucan gels as vehicles for nasal drug delivery.
Synthesis, characterization and applications of a new cation exchanger tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater.
Interpreting food processing through dietary mechanical properties: a Lemur catta case study.
Antitumor and immunopotentiating activity of polysaccharide PST001 isolated from the seed kernel of Tamarindus indica: an in vivo study in mice.
Development of photochemoprotective herbs containing cosmetic formulations for improving skin properties.
Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.
Ameliorative effect of tamarind leaf on fluoride-induced metabolic alterations.
Effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on pathophysiological changes and red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in heat-stressed broilers.
Novel tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate mucoadhesive microspheres for oral gliclazide delivery: in vitro-in vivo evaluation.
Ethnoveterinary remedies of diseases among milk yielding animals in Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Anti-apoptotic effects of tamarind leaves against ethanol-induced rat liver injury.
Ethnobotanical study of antimalarial plants in Shinile District, Somali Region, Ethiopia, and in vivo evaluation of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei.
Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.
Antiobesity effect of Tamarindus indica L. pulp aqueous extract in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.
Bioactive compounds extracted from Indian wild legume seeds: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition properties.
Biosorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isosteric heat of sorption of Cu(II) onto Tamarindus indica seed powder.
Removal of hexavalent chromium by biosorption process in rotating packed bed.
Tannins of tamarind seed husk: preparation, structural characterization, and antioxidant activities.
Hypolipidemic and weight reducing activity of the ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats.
In vitro antiplasmodial activity of crude extracts from Togolese medicinal plants.
Antioxidant activity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in some medicinal plants of India.
Prevention of high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in male wistar rats by aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seed.
Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models.
Tamarind tree seed dispersal by ring-tailed lemurs.
Adsorptive removal of nickel and lead ions from aqueous solutions using phosphorylated tamarind nut carbon.
Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp.
In vivo efficacy of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit extract on experimental fluoride exposure in rats.
Storage xyloglucans: potent macrophages activators.
A stereological study of effects of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Phenolic content and in vitro inhibitory effects on oxidation and protein glycation of some Thai medicinal plants.
Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production using xyloglucanase and Debaromyces hansenii from tamarind kernel powder: galactoxyloglucan predominant hemicellulose.
Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.
Sensory properties and consumer acceptance of sweet tamarind varieties grown in Thailand.
Dental erosion protection by fermented shrimp paste in acidic food.
Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae): patterns of use in traditional African medicine.
Traditional medicine in kidney diseases in Burkina Faso].
Response surface modeling and optimization of chromium(VI) removal from aqueous solution using Tamarind wood activated carbon in batch process.
Cationic tamarind kernel polysaccharide (Cat TKP): A novel polymeric flocculant for the treatment of textile industry wastewater.
Utilization of waste product (tamarind seeds) for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions: equilibrium, kinetics, and regeneration studies.
Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.
Improved performance of a biomaterial-based cation exchanger for the adsorption of uranium(VI) from water and nuclear industry wastewater.
Influence of food acidulants and antioxidant spices on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from selected vegetables.
Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability.
Tamarind seed: properties, processing and utilization.
Studies on the removal of LEAD Pb(II) from wastewater by activated carbon developed from Tamarind wood activated with sulphuric acid.
Cleansing lotion containing tamarind fruit pulp extract. II. Study of cumulative irritation effects in human.
Effect of the extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit on the complement system: studies in vitro and in hamsters submitted to a cholesterol-enriched diet.
Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Yemen.
Protection of testicular dysfunctions by MTEC, a formulated herbal drug, in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.
Traditional leafy vegetables in Senegal: diversity and medicinal uses.
Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.
The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.
Effect of Tamarindus indica fruits on blood pressure and lipid-profile in human model: an in vivo approach.
Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds.
Xyloglucan degradation using different radiation sources: a comparative study.
In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.
A serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from Tamarindus indica seeds and its effects on the release of human neutrophil elastase.
Effects of dietary tamarind on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens.
Tamarind seed powder and palm kernel cake: two novel agro residues for the production of tannase under solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620.
Natural products as aids for protecting the skin’s immune system against UV damage.
Evaluation of co-stimulatory effects of Tamarindus indica L. on MNU-induced colonic cell proliferation.
Effect of Tamarindus indica. L on the bioavailability of ibuprofen in healthy human volunteers.
Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.
The polysaccharide from Tamarindus indica (TS-polysaccharide) protects cultured corneal-derived cells (SIRC cells) from ultraviolet rays.
Studies on the applicability of tamarind kernel powder as a carrier in the dissolution enhancement of poorly water soluble drug, celecoxib.
Childhood lead poisoning associated with tamarind candy and folk remedies–California, 1999-2000.
Release behaviour of drugs from tamarind seed polysaccharide tablets.
Effect of tamarind ingestion on fluoride excretion in humans.
Floral development in Tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Amherstia, Brownea, and Tamarindus.
Anti – inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaves of tamarindus indicus.
Effect of Tamarindus indica L. on the bioavailability of aspirin in healthy human volunteers.
Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.
A cytotoxic principle of Tamarindus indica, di-n-butyl malate and the structure-activity relationship of its analogues.